India, the self- proclaimed Champion of World’s biggest democracy has been toying with the blood of innocent Kashmiris since the partition of the subcontinent. During this time Indian forces have killed more than 100,000 civilians to crush the freedom movement of Kashmir. Under the Independence Act of 1947, which formulated the partition plan of United India, Kashmir was provided with an option to either stay alongside India or to choose newly formed Pakistan.
While the majority of the population of Jammu Kashmir were Muslim, Kashmiris wanted to join Pakistan, but the Hindu ruler of the valley, Maharaja, Hari Singh decided otherwise and prematurely allowed Indian Army to invade. In the matter of the days, Indian committed a heinous crime in the Kashmir to press the demands of the Kashmiris and started the genocide of the Muslims in the valley. Pakistan was left with no option, other than protecting their brothers in the grievances hour of the need and decided to send troops and Pashtun tribesmen.
To avoid the further confrontation, United Nation intervened and call for a peaceful resolution of the issue. Security Council announced impartial and referendum under the monitoring of the United Nation, and the withdrawal of the Indian and Pakistani forces from Kashmir. In the aftermath of the post-World War II, Kashmir issue was one of the biggest challenges for UN to resolve. From time to time United Nation passed 23 resolutions towards the peaceful solution of the conflict from 1948 to 1971. But’s India attitude from the day one has proved to be stumbling block in the way of an effective solution to the conflict.
UN passed the first resolution in the accordance with the Kashmir issue on January 17, 1948. Under the resolution, India and Pakistan were bound to strictly exercise the cease-fire. In the next step, United Nation appointed a commission, which passed another resolution, 39 in the Security Council to further ease the tension between India and Pakistan and work on mutual agreement of the issue. The commission was supervised by the United States and Britain and consisted of additional members from of Argentina, Belgium, Columbia, Czechoslovakia that passed yet another resolution on 21, 1948. Under the provisions of the commission, both India and Pakistan were ordered to withdraw their forces from the Kashmir, in order to hold free and impartial Plebiscite that determine the future of the Kashmir, according to the will of its people.
To ensure the implementation UN resolution, the Security Council passed another resolution on June3, 1948 to peacefully proceed the United nation’s mission which was proposed on April 21, 1948. The UNCIP reached in Kashmir on August 14, 1948, and ordered the both parties to honor the terms of the truce. Pakistan wholeheartedly accepted the UN terms and agreed to the withdrawal of tribesman under the truce agreement. On the other hand, India, who had no intention of letting a free and fair referendum take place in the Kashmir, refused to withdraw its troops from the valley. India was planning to influence the polls by installing Sheikh Abdullah as the interim prime minister of Jammu and Kashmir Sheikh Abdullah, and by using military aid to harass the voters to swing the possible outcome of the referendum.
Sheikh Abdullah was regarded as an Indian puppet by the majority of the population of the Kashmir, and as a result, Pakistan rejected the India’s wicked plan of the interim administration. To break the deadlock on December 11, 1948, UNCIP presented the new proposal, under which India and Pakistan were advised to exercise the cease-fire agreement. Later on, United Nations laid the new plan for a referendum in Kashmir on January 5, 1949, and also proposed the independent Plebiscite Administration to address Pakistan’s reservations about India’s plan of rigging the polls.
UNSC President, General A. G. L McNaughton was appointed as mediator between India and Pakistan in December 1949, but UN’s effort was hit by a hammer blow after India rejected to withdraw troops from Kashmir. Having seen all their efforts went to ruin, United Nations decided to appoint Owen Dixon in 1950. But, Dixon had to face severe frustration, after India refused to accept the plan of demilitarization, after knowing the fact that Kashmiri citizens will vote in the favor of Pakistan if referendum takes place.
With Dixon’s term of proposals failed to materialize, Frank Graham was appointed as the UN representative in 1951 to resolve the ongoing Kashmir conflict. Unfortunately, Graham was unable to achieve any meaningful breakthrough after working on a contingency plan, as Indian government had other ideas. Gunnar Jarring was next in the line, tasked to find a common ground between India and Pakistan, but met with the same fate as his predecessors. Without making little progress toward the Kashmir conflict, Security Council terminated the mandate of UNCIP. Security Council set up a United Nations Military Observer Group, after passing another resolution on 30 March 1951 to monitor whether India and Pakistan are following the cease-fire agreement on the line of control.
The Kashmir cause was further hindered by Indian backed Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad’s administration, as it increased the Indian influence in the valley in 1957 and undermined UN’s peace plan in the region. Pakistan raised the issue in the Security Council and asked the United Nation to play its due role to bring an end to of political crisis in the Kashmir. UN null and void the constitutional amendments imposed on the will of Indian Government in Kashmir and passed a resolution to hold the referendum according to the will of the people.
Pakistan remained loyal to the Kashmir cause and raised the issue in United Nation on numerous occasions.
India waged a war on Pakistan in 1965, and United Nation who previously failed to implement the resolutions in Kashmir were severely sidelined, as the Soviet Union and the USA acted as mediators between India and Pakistan and reached on a ceasefire on September 29, 1965.
Since then, UN has unable to peacefully resolve the Kashmir issue, as India always has rejected to act according to the resolutions of the Security Council time and again. In its last ditched attempt, U.N Secretary General Kofi Anan tried to resolve the conflict in 2002, but India’s reluctant and the dubious role again come into the play, which is denying the rightful right of the people of Kashmir.
69 years have passed since independence and the situation in the Kashmir has only aggravated and India has been slaughtering the Kashmiris, and yet the World is acting like a silent spectator.